ⓘ Gjuha ilire ose ilirishtja i perket familjes se gjuheve indo-evropiane dhe ka qene e folur ne pjesen perendimore te Ballkanit Ne kohen e lashte quheshin si fise ..

                                     

ⓘ Gjuha ilire

Gjuha ilire ose ilirishtja i perket familjes se gjuheve indo-evropiane dhe ka qene e folur ne pjesen perendimore te Ballkanit Ne kohen e lashte quheshin si fise. Por sipas disa studimeve thuhet se gjuha e ilireve eshte shume e ngjashme me shqipen e sotme.ilire: Ardianet, Dalmatet, Panonet, Autariatet, Taulantet.Iliret flisnin nje gjuhe qe dallonte nga popujt e tjere qe jetonin ne gadishullin e Ballkanit. Mendohet se iliret nuk e kane lene te shkruar gjuhen e tyre. Deri me sot nuk eshte gjetur asnje dokument i shkruar ne gjuhen ilire. Nga gjuha ilire jane trasheguar sot rreth 1000 emra njerezish,perendish,fisesh,vendesh,lumenjsh e malesh. Keto fjale jane gjetur ne mbishkrime te ndryshme,ne shkrimet e autoreve te vjeter greke e latine,si dhe ne monedhat e gjetura ne teritoret ilire.Nga studimi i tyre eshte aritur ne perfundimin se gjuha ilire ben pjese ne grupin e gjuheve indoeuropiane.Me ane te gjuhes shqipe,studiuesit sot kane mundur te shpjegojne kuptimin e shume fjaleve ilire si:bile, sika,aran,baro etj.Emra ilire si Bardhyl,Agron,Teuta,Genti,Pirro etj emra te cilet perdoren e dhe sot ne trevat shqiptare.

                                     

1. Fjalet ilire

Vetem pak fjale te ilirishtes jane cituar nga burimet klasike nga ato romake apo greke, dhe nga keto vetem kater jane identifikuar me etnonimin Illyrii ose Illurioí ; te tjerat duhet te identifikohen terthorazi:

Some additional words have been extracted by linguists from toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc.:

  • Agruvium "along the coast between Risinum and Butua": IE *aĝr-; cf. Skt ájrah "pasture, field", Lat ager, Gk agrós, Goth akrs
  • Bindus "river god"; cf. Old Ir banne "drop", Skt bindú, vindú "drops, gob, spot", possibly Lat fōns Bandusiae
  • Loúgeon. Strabo in his Geography mentions "a marsh called Lougeon" which has been identified as Lake Cerknica in Slovenia by the locals Illyrian and Celtic tribes, Lougeon being Strabos rendition of the local toponym into Greek. cf. Alb lag "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" < PA * lauga, legate "pool" < PA * leugatā, lakshte "dew" < PA * laugista; further akin to Lith liűgas "marsh", Old Ch Slav luža "pool", Thrac Lýginos "river name"
  • Derbanoí, An derva: IE *derv; cf. Eng tree, Alb dru "wood", Old Ch Slav drĕvo "tree", Welsh derw "oak", Gk dóry "wood, spear", drýs "oak, tree", Lith derva "pine wood", Hitt taru "tree, wood, Thrac taru "spear", Skt dru "tree, wood", daru "wood, log"
  • Dizēros, An dízētes: IE *digh; cf. Eng dough, Gk teîchos "wall", Lat fingere "to shape, mold", Old Ir com-od-ding "he builds, erects", Old Russ dĕža "kneading trough", Arm dez "heap", Skt dehah "body, form"
  • mons Bulsinus, "Büžanim hill": IE *bhl.kos; cf. Eng balk, Middle Ir blog "piece, fragment", Lat fulcrum "bedpost", Gk phálanx "trunk, log", Lith balžiena "crossbar", Serb blazína "roof beam", Skt bhuríjāu "cart arms"
  • Bosona, "Bosna river", literally "running water": IE *bheg-, bhog- "to run"; cf. Old Ch Slav bĕžati "to flee, run", Lith bėgti "to flee", Gk phébesthai "to flee", phóbos "fear", Alb boj "to drive, mate", Eng beck "brook, stream", Middle Ir búal "flowing water", Hindi bhāg "to flee"
  • Domator, personal name; cf. Old Ir damnaid "he binds, breaks a horse", dam "ox", Eng tame, dialectal Germ zamer "ox not under the yoke", Alb dem "young bull", Lat domāre "to tame", domitor "tamer", Gk dámnēmi "to break in", dámalos "calf", Skt dāmyáti "he is tame; he tames"

Alb" Lugine”, Eng." Valley”.

  • Nedinum: IE *ned; cf. Skt nadas "roarer"
  • stagnus Morsianus "marshlands in Pannonia": IE *merĝ; cf. Middle High Germ murc "rotten, withered, boggy", Old Ir meirc "rust", Alb marth "to shiver, shudder", Lith markýti "to rust"
  • Tómaros, Tomorr mountain; cf. Old Ir temel "darkness", Middle Ir teimen "dark grey", Old High Germ demar "darkness", dinstar "dark", Lat tenebrae "darkness", temere "by chance, rashly", Skt tamas "darkness", tamsrah "dark", Old Ch Slav tima "darkness"
  • Teuta, Teutana: IE *teuta- "people"; cf. Lith tauta "people", Germ Deutsch "German", Old Eng theod "people", Old Ir túath "clan", Umbrian tota "people", Oscan touto "city", Hitt tuzzi "army"
  • Naro: IE *nor; cf. Lith nãras "diving duck", Russ norá "hole", Serbo-Croat po-nor "abyss"
  • Tergitio, "merchant"; cf. Old Ch Slav trĭgĭ Serbo-Croat trg "market", Old Russ tŭrgŭ "market", Latv tirgus
  • Pelso Latin authors referred to modern Lake Balaton as lacus Pelso ", Pelso being a hydronym from the local inhabitants, Pelso apparently meant "deep" or "shallow": IE *pels- ; cf. Czech pleso "deep place in a river, lake", Welsh bwlch "crack", Arm pelem "to dig"
  • Oseriates, "lakes"; akin to Old Ch Slav ozero Serb-Croat jezero, Latvian ezers, Old Pruss assaran, Gk Achérōn "river in the underworld"

Alb" Tmerr or Terr” Eng." Horror, or darkness”

  • Ulcisus mons, Ulcinium city, Ulcisia castra; cf. Eng wolf, Old Alb ulk, Alb ujk, Avestan vəhrkō, Farsi gurg, Skt vrkas, Old Ch Slav vlŭkŭ, Russ volcica, Lith vil~kas, Lat lupus, Gk lýkos

Alb" Ultesine” Eng." The lowlands”

  • Volcos, river name in Pannonia; cf. Old Ir folc "heavy rain, wet weather", Welsh golchi "to wash", obsolete Eng welkin "cloud", Old High Germ welk "moist", Old Ch Slav vlaga "moisture, plant juice", vŭlgŭkŭ "wet"
                                     

1.1. Fjalet ilire Antroponimet ilire

Antroponimet e meposhtme vijne nga ilirishtja ose nuk jane deri tani te lidhuara me ndonje gjuhe tjeter unless noted, such as the Delmatae names of Liburnian origin. Alföldy identified five principal onomastic provinces within the Illyrian area: 1) the "real" Illyrians south of the river Neretva in Dalmatia and extending south to Epirus; 2) the Delmatae, who occupied the middle Adriatic coast between the "real Illyrians" to the south and the Liburni to the north; 3) the Liburni, a branch of Venetic in the northeast Adriatic; 4) the Iapodes, who dwelt north of the Delmatae and behind inland from the coastal Liburnians; 5) the Pannonians in the northern lands, and in Bosnia, northern Montenegro and Western Serbia. Katičić 1964 does not recognize a separate Pannonian onomastic area, and includes the Pannoni with the Delmatae. Below, names from four of Alföldys five onomastic areas are listed, Liburnian excluded, having been identified as being akin to Venetic. A Dardanian area is also detailed. Wilkes 1992: "The names Daza, Dasius and Dazomenus have been connected with Das- menus in Pannonia and Dazos in southern Italy. The meaning of these plausible correspondences is hard to determine: neither the internal links between the three principal Illyrian onomastic provinces nor those between." p. 71